<ligature>

A mensural notation symbol that combines two or more notes into a single sign.
Module
MEI.mensural
Attributes
class, color, copyof, corresp, facs, follows, form, label, n, next, precedes, prev, resp, sameas, synch, type, xml:base, xml:id
class(optional)Contains one or more URIs which denote classification terms that apply to the entity bearing this attribute. One or more values from data.URI, separated by spaces.
color(optional)Used to indicate visual appearance. Do not confuse this with the musical term 'color' as used in pre-CMN notation. Value conforms to data.COLOR.
copyof(optional)Points to an element of which the current element is a copy. Value conforms to data.URI.
corresp(optional)Used to point to other elements that correspond to this one in a generic fashion. One or more values from data.URI, separated by spaces.
facs(optional)Permits the current element to reference a facsimile surface or image zone which corresponds to it. One or more values from data.URI, separated by spaces.
follows(optional)points to one or more events in a user-defined collection that are known to be predecessors of the current element. One or more values from data.URI, separated by spaces.
form(optional)Provides an indication of the function of the ligature. Value conforms to data.LIGATUREFORM.
label(optional)Captures text to be used to generate a label for the element to which it's attached, a "tool tip" or prefatory text, for example. Should not be used to record document content. Value is plain text.
n(optional)Provides a number-like designation that indicates an element's position in a sequence of similar elements. May not contain space characters. Value conforms to data.WORD.
next(optional)Used to point to the next event(s) in a user-defined collection. One or more values from data.URI, separated by spaces.
precedes(optional)Points to one or more events in a user-defined collection that are known to be successors of the current element. One or more values from data.URI, separated by spaces.
prev(optional)Points to the previous event(s) in a user-defined collection. One or more values from data.URI, separated by spaces.
resp(optional)Indicates the agent(s) responsible for some aspect of the text's transcription, editing, or encoding. Its value must point to one or more identifiers declared in the document header. One or more values from data.URI, separated by spaces.
sameas(optional)Points to an element that is the same as the current element but is not a literal copy of the current element. One or more values from data.URI, separated by spaces.
synch(optional)Points to elements that are synchronous with the current element. One or more values from data.URI, separated by spaces.
type(optional)Designation which characterizes the element in some sense, using any convenient classification scheme or typology that employs single-token labels. One or more values of datatype NMTOKEN, separated by spaces.
xml:base(optional)Provides a base URI reference with which applications can resolve relative URI references into absolute URI references. Value conforms to data.URI.
xml:id(optional)Regularizes the naming of an element and thus facilitates building links between it and other resources. Each id attribute within a document must have a unique value. Value is a valid xml:id.
(MEI.shared) Attributes common to many elements.
(MEI.shared) Attributes that form the basis of the att.common class.
xml:base(optional)Provides a base URI reference with which applications can resolve relative URI references into absolute URI references. Value conforms to data.URI.
(MEI.shared) Attributes that uniquely identify an element.
xml:id(optional)Regularizes the naming of an element and thus facilitates building links between it and other resources. Each id attribute within a document must have a unique value. Value is a valid xml:id.
(MEI.shared)
label(optional)Captures text to be used to generate a label for the element to which it's attached, a "tool tip" or prefatory text, for example. Should not be used to record document content. Value is plain text.
(MEI.shared) Attributes that specify element-to-element relationships.
copyof(optional)Points to an element of which the current element is a copy. Value conforms to data.URI.
corresp(optional)Used to point to other elements that correspond to this one in a generic fashion. One or more values from data.URI, separated by spaces.
follows(optional)points to one or more events in a user-defined collection that are known to be predecessors of the current element. One or more values from data.URI, separated by spaces.
next(optional)Used to point to the next event(s) in a user-defined collection. One or more values from data.URI, separated by spaces.
precedes(optional)Points to one or more events in a user-defined collection that are known to be successors of the current element. One or more values from data.URI, separated by spaces.
prev(optional)Points to the previous event(s) in a user-defined collection. One or more values from data.URI, separated by spaces.
sameas(optional)Points to an element that is the same as the current element but is not a literal copy of the current element. One or more values from data.URI, separated by spaces.
synch(optional)Points to elements that are synchronous with the current element. One or more values from data.URI, separated by spaces.
(MEI.shared) Attributes used to supply a number-like designation for an element.
n(optional)Provides a number-like designation that indicates an element's position in a sequence of similar elements. May not contain space characters. Value conforms to data.WORD.
(MEI.shared) Attributes capturing information regarding responsibility for some aspect of the text's creation, transcription, editing, or encoding.
resp(optional)Indicates the agent(s) responsible for some aspect of the text's transcription, editing, or encoding. Its value must point to one or more identifiers declared in the document header. One or more values from data.URI, separated by spaces.
(MEI.shared) Attributes which can be used to classify features.
type(optional)Designation which characterizes the element in some sense, using any convenient classification scheme or typology that employs single-token labels. One or more values of datatype NMTOKEN, separated by spaces.
(MEI.shared) Attributes which can be used to classify features.
class(optional)Contains one or more URIs which denote classification terms that apply to the entity bearing this attribute. One or more values from data.URI, separated by spaces.
(MEI.facsimile) Attributes that associate a feature corresponding with all or part of an image.
facs(optional)Permits the current element to reference a facsimile surface or image zone which corresponds to it. One or more values from data.URI, separated by spaces.
(MEI.mensural) Logical domain attributes.
(MEI.visual) Visual domain attributes.
form(optional)Provides an indication of the function of the ligature. Value conforms to data.LIGATUREFORM.
(MEI.shared) Visual color attributes.
color(optional)Used to indicate visual appearance. Do not confuse this with the musical term 'color' as used in pre-CMN notation. Value conforms to data.COLOR.
(MEI.gestural) Gestural domain attributes.
(MEI.analytical) Analytical domain attributes.
Facsimile component declarations.
facs(optional)Permits the current element to reference a facsimile surface or image zone which corresponds to it. One or more values from data.URI, separated by spaces.
Component declarations that are shared between two or more modules.
class(optional)Contains one or more URIs which denote classification terms that apply to the entity bearing this attribute. One or more values from data.URI, separated by spaces.
color(optional)Used to indicate visual appearance. Do not confuse this with the musical term 'color' as used in pre-CMN notation. Value conforms to data.COLOR.
copyof(optional)Points to an element of which the current element is a copy. Value conforms to data.URI.
corresp(optional)Used to point to other elements that correspond to this one in a generic fashion. One or more values from data.URI, separated by spaces.
follows(optional)points to one or more events in a user-defined collection that are known to be predecessors of the current element. One or more values from data.URI, separated by spaces.
label(optional)Captures text to be used to generate a label for the element to which it's attached, a "tool tip" or prefatory text, for example. Should not be used to record document content. Value is plain text.
n(optional)Provides a number-like designation that indicates an element's position in a sequence of similar elements. May not contain space characters. Value conforms to data.WORD.
next(optional)Used to point to the next event(s) in a user-defined collection. One or more values from data.URI, separated by spaces.
precedes(optional)Points to one or more events in a user-defined collection that are known to be successors of the current element. One or more values from data.URI, separated by spaces.
prev(optional)Points to the previous event(s) in a user-defined collection. One or more values from data.URI, separated by spaces.
resp(optional)Indicates the agent(s) responsible for some aspect of the text's transcription, editing, or encoding. Its value must point to one or more identifiers declared in the document header. One or more values from data.URI, separated by spaces.
sameas(optional)Points to an element that is the same as the current element but is not a literal copy of the current element. One or more values from data.URI, separated by spaces.
synch(optional)Points to elements that are synchronous with the current element. One or more values from data.URI, separated by spaces.
type(optional)Designation which characterizes the element in some sense, using any convenient classification scheme or typology that employs single-token labels. One or more values of datatype NMTOKEN, separated by spaces.
xml:base(optional)Provides a base URI reference with which applications can resolve relative URI references into absolute URI references. Value conforms to data.URI.
xml:id(optional)Regularizes the naming of an element and thus facilitates building links between it and other resources. Each id attribute within a document must have a unique value. Value is a valid xml:id.
Visual component declarations.
form(optional)Provides an indication of the function of the ligature. Value conforms to data.LIGATUREFORM.
Member of
model.eventLike.mensuralGroups event elements that occur in the mensural repertoire.
Contained By
(MEI.mensural) Groups event elements that occur in the mensural repertoire.
ligatureA mensural notation symbol that combines two or more notes into a single sign.
(MEI.mensural) Groups notated events that may appear at the layer level in the mensural repertoire.
(MEI.shared) Groups notated events at the layer level that are shared by the mensural and neume repertoires.
(MEI.shared) Groups notated events that may appear at the layer level in all repertoires.
abbr(abbreviation) – A generic element for 1) a shortened form of a word, including an acronym or 2) a shorthand notation.
add(addition) – Marks an addition to the text.
corr(correction) – Contains the correct form of an apparent erroneous passage.
damageContains an area of damage to the physical medium.
del(deletion) – Contains information deleted, marked as deleted, or otherwise indicated as superfluous or spurious in the copy text by an author, scribe, annotator, or corrector.
expan(expansion) – Contains the expansion of an abbreviation.
layerAn independent stream of events on a staff.
lem(lemma) – Contains the lemma, or base text, of a textual variation.
oLayer(ossia layer) – A layer that contains an alternative to material in another layer.
orig(original) – Contains material which is marked as following the original, rather than being normalized or corrected.
rdg(reading) – Contains a single reading within a textual variation.
reg(regularization) – Contains material which has been regularized or normalized in some sense.
restoreIndicates restoration of material to an earlier state by cancellation of an editorial or authorial marking or instruction.
sicContains apparently incorrect or inaccurate material.
suppliedContains material supplied by the transcriber or editor for any reason.
unclearContains material that cannot be transcribed with certainty because it is illegible or inaudible in the source.
Common Music Notation (CMN) repertoire component declarations.
oLayer(ossia layer) – A layer that contains an alternative to material in another layer.
Critical apparatus component declarations.
lem(lemma) – Contains the lemma, or base text, of a textual variation.
rdg(reading) – Contains a single reading within a textual variation.
Editorial and transcriptional component declarations.
abbr(abbreviation) – A generic element for 1) a shortened form of a word, including an acronym or 2) a shorthand notation.
add(addition) – Marks an addition to the text.
corr(correction) – Contains the correct form of an apparent erroneous passage.
damageContains an area of damage to the physical medium.
del(deletion) – Contains information deleted, marked as deleted, or otherwise indicated as superfluous or spurious in the copy text by an author, scribe, annotator, or corrector.
expan(expansion) – Contains the expansion of an abbreviation.
orig(original) – Contains material which is marked as following the original, rather than being normalized or corrected.
reg(regularization) – Contains material which has been regularized or normalized in some sense.
restoreIndicates restoration of material to an earlier state by cancellation of an editorial or authorial marking or instruction.
sicContains apparently incorrect or inaccurate material.
suppliedContains material supplied by the transcriber or editor for any reason.
unclearContains material that cannot be transcribed with certainty because it is illegible or inaudible in the source.
Mensural repertoire component declarations.
ligatureA mensural notation symbol that combines two or more notes into a single sign.
Component declarations that are shared between two or more modules.
layerAn independent stream of events on a staff.
May Contain
(MEI.critapp) Groups elements that contain a critical apparatus entry.
app(apparatus) – Contains one or more alternative encodings.
(MEI.edittrans) Groups elements for editorial interventions that may be useful both in transcribing and in authoring processes.
choiceGroups a number of alternative encodings for the same point in a text.
subst(substitution) – Groups transcriptional elements when the combination is to be regarded as a single intervention in the text.
(MEI.edittrans) Groups elements used for editorial transcription of pre-existing source materials.
add(addition) – Marks an addition to the text.
corr(correction) – Contains the correct form of an apparent erroneous passage.
damageContains an area of damage to the physical medium.
del(deletion) – Contains information deleted, marked as deleted, or otherwise indicated as superfluous or spurious in the copy text by an author, scribe, annotator, or corrector.
gapIndicates a point where material has been omitted in a transcription, whether as part of sampling practice or for editorial reasons described in the MEI header.
handShiftMarks the beginning of a passage written in a new hand, or of a change in the scribe, writing style, ink or character of the document hand.
orig(original) – Contains material which is marked as following the original, rather than being normalized or corrected.
reg(regularization) – Contains material which has been regularized or normalized in some sense.
restoreIndicates restoration of material to an earlier state by cancellation of an editorial or authorial marking or instruction.
sicContains apparently incorrect or inaccurate material.
suppliedContains material supplied by the transcriber or editor for any reason.
unclearContains material that cannot be transcribed with certainty because it is illegible or inaudible in the source.
(MEI.mensural) Groups event elements that occur in the mensural repertoire.
dotDot of augmentation or division.
ligatureA mensural notation symbol that combines two or more notes into a single sign.
mensur(mensuration) – Collects information about the metrical relationship between a note value and the next smaller value; that is, either triple or duple.
proport(proportion) – Description of note duration as arithmetic ratio.
(MEI.neumes) Groups event elements that occur in the neume repertoire.
neumeSign representing one or more musical pitches.
(MEI.shared) Groups event elements that occur in all notational repertoires.
barLineVertical line drawn through one or more staves that divides musical notation into metrical units.
chordA simultaneous sounding of two or more notes in the same layer *with the same duration*.
clefIndication of the exact location of a particular note on the staff and, therefore, the other notes as well.
clefGrp(clef group) – A set of simultaneously-occurring clefs.
custosSymbol placed at the end of a line of music to indicate the first note of the next line. Sometimes called a "direct".
noteA single pitched event.
pad(padding) – An indication of extra visual space between notational elements.
restA non-sounding event found in the source being transcribed.
spaceA placeholder used to fill an incomplete measure, layer, etc. most often so that the combined duration of the events equals the number of beats in the measure.
(MEI.shared) Groups elements that have the same function as a key signature.
keySig(key signature) – Written key signature.
(MEI.shared) Groups elements that represent a meter signature.
meterSig(meter signature) – Written meter signature.
meterSigGrp(meter signature group) – Used to capture alternating, interchanging, and mixed meter signatures.
Common Music Notation (CMN) repertoire component declarations.
meterSig(meter signature) – Written meter signature.
meterSigGrp(meter signature group) – Used to capture alternating, interchanging, and mixed meter signatures.
Critical apparatus component declarations.
app(apparatus) – Contains one or more alternative encodings.
Editorial and transcriptional component declarations.
add(addition) – Marks an addition to the text.
choiceGroups a number of alternative encodings for the same point in a text.
corr(correction) – Contains the correct form of an apparent erroneous passage.
damageContains an area of damage to the physical medium.
del(deletion) – Contains information deleted, marked as deleted, or otherwise indicated as superfluous or spurious in the copy text by an author, scribe, annotator, or corrector.
gapIndicates a point where material has been omitted in a transcription, whether as part of sampling practice or for editorial reasons described in the MEI header.
handShiftMarks the beginning of a passage written in a new hand, or of a change in the scribe, writing style, ink or character of the document hand.
orig(original) – Contains material which is marked as following the original, rather than being normalized or corrected.
reg(regularization) – Contains material which has been regularized or normalized in some sense.
restoreIndicates restoration of material to an earlier state by cancellation of an editorial or authorial marking or instruction.
sicContains apparently incorrect or inaccurate material.
subst(substitution) – Groups transcriptional elements when the combination is to be regarded as a single intervention in the text.
suppliedContains material supplied by the transcriber or editor for any reason.
unclearContains material that cannot be transcribed with certainty because it is illegible or inaudible in the source.
Mensural repertoire component declarations.
ligatureA mensural notation symbol that combines two or more notes into a single sign.
mensur(mensuration) – Collects information about the metrical relationship between a note value and the next smaller value; that is, either triple or duple.
proport(proportion) – Description of note duration as arithmetic ratio.
Neume repertoire component declarations.
neumeSign representing one or more musical pitches.
Component declarations that are shared between two or more modules.
barLineVertical line drawn through one or more staves that divides musical notation into metrical units.
chordA simultaneous sounding of two or more notes in the same layer *with the same duration*.
clefIndication of the exact location of a particular note on the staff and, therefore, the other notes as well.
clefGrp(clef group) – A set of simultaneously-occurring clefs.
custosSymbol placed at the end of a line of music to indicate the first note of the next line. Sometimes called a "direct".
dotDot of augmentation or division.
keySig(key signature) – Written key signature.
noteA single pitched event.
pad(padding) – An indication of extra visual space between notational elements.
restA non-sounding event found in the source being transcribed.
spaceA placeholder used to fill an incomplete measure, layer, etc. most often so that the combined duration of the events equals the number of beats in the measure.
Remarks

The rhythmic meaning of the components of a ligature is typically contextual, not absolute; therefore, an interpretative duration may be encoded on each of the components using either the dur.ges attribute or the num and numbase attribute pair. The ligature element should not be used for brackets in modern notation that indicate notes that were part of a ligature in the original source.

Declaration
<elementSpec ident="ligature" module="MEI.mensural">
<desc>A mensural notation symbol that combines two or more notes into a single sign.</desc>
<classes>
<memberOf key="att.common"/>
<memberOf key="att.facsimile"/>
<memberOf key="att.ligature.log"/>
<memberOf key="att.ligature.vis"/>
<memberOf key="att.ligature.ges"/>
<memberOf key="att.ligature.anl"/>
<memberOf key="model.eventLike.mensural"/>
</classes>
<content>
<rng:zeroOrMore>
<rng:choice>
<rng:ref name="model.appLike"/>
<rng:ref name="model.editLike"/>
<rng:ref name="model.eventLike"/>
<rng:ref name="model.eventLike.mensural"/>
<rng:ref name="model.eventLike.neumes"/>
<rng:ref name="model.transcriptionLike"/>
</rng:choice>
</rng:zeroOrMore>
</content>
<remarks>
<p>The rhythmic meaning of the components of a ligature is typically contextual, not absolute; therefore, an interpretative duration may be encoded on each of the components using either the <att>dur.ges</att> attribute or the <att>num</att> and <att>numbase</att> attribute pair. The <gi scheme="MEI">ligature</gi> element should <hi rend="bold">not</hi> be used for brackets in modern notation that indicate notes that were part of a ligature in the original source.</p>
</remarks>
</elementSpec>