<hairpin>

<hairpin> Indicates continuous dynamics expressed on the score as wedge-shaped graphics, e.g. < and >.
Module MEI.cmn
Attributes
@color (optional) Used to indicate visual appearance. Do not confuse this with the musical term 'color' as used in pre-CMN notation. Value conforms to data.COLOR . att.color
@copyof (optional) Points to an element of which the current element is a copy. Value conforms to data.URI . att.common.anl
@corresp (optional) Used to point to other elements that correspond to this one in a generic fashion. One or more values from data.URI , separated by spaces. att.common.anl
@dots (optional) Records the number of augmentation dots required by a dotted duration. Value conforms to data.AUGMENTDOT . att.augmentdots
@dur (optional) Records duration using optionally dotted, relative durational values provided by the data.DURATION datatype. When the duration is "irrational", as is sometimes the case with tuplets, multiple space-separated values that add up to the total duration may be used. When dotted values are present, the dots attribute must be ignored. One or more values from data.DURATION.additive , separated by spaces. att.duration.additive
@dur.ges (optional) Records performed duration information that differs from the written duration. Its value may be expressed in several forms; that is, ppq (MIDI clicks and MusicXML 'divisions'), Humdrum **recip values, beats, seconds, or mensural duration values. Value conforms to data.DURATION.gestural . att.duration.performed
@endho (optional) Records the horizontal adjustment of a feature's programmatically-determined end point. Value conforms to data.MEASUREMENTREL . att.visualoffset2.ho
@endid (optional) Indicates the final element in a sequence of events to which the feature applies. Value conforms to data.URI . att.startendid
@endto (optional) Records a timestamp adjustment of a feature's programmatically-determined end point. Value conforms to data.TSTAMPOFFSET . att.visualoffset2.to
@endvo (optional) Records a vertical adjustment of a feature's programmatically-determined end point. Value conforms to data.MEASUREMENTREL . att.visualoffset2.vo
@evaluate (optional) Specifies the intended meaning when a participant in a relationship is itself a pointer. Allowed values are: " all" (If an element pointed to is itself a pointer, then the target of that pointer will be taken, and so on, until an element is found which is not a pointer.) , " one" (If an element pointed to is itself a pointer, then its target (whether a pointer or not) is taken as the target of this pointer.) , " none" (No further evaluation of targets is carried out beyond that needed to find the element(s) specified in plist or target attribute.) att.targeteval
@facs (optional) Permits the current element to reference a facsimile surface or image zone which corresponds to it. One or more values from data.URI , separated by spaces. att.facsimile
@form (required) Captures the visual rendition and function of the hairpin; that is, whether it indicates an increase or a decrease in volume. Allowed values are: " cres" (Crescendo; i.e., louder.), " dim" (Diminuendo; i.e., softer.) att.hairpin.log
@ho (optional) Records a horizontal adjustment to a feature's programmatically-determined location in terms of staff interline distance; that is, in units of 1/2 the distance between adjacent staff lines. Value conforms to data.MEASUREMENTREL . att.visualoffset.ho
@label (optional) Provides a name or label for an element. The value may be any string. Value of datatype string. att.commonPart
@layer (optional) Identifies the layer to which a feature applies. One or more values of datatype positiveInteger, separated by spaces. att.layerident
@lform (optional) Describes the line style of a line. Value conforms to data.LINEFORM . att.linerend.base
@lwidth (optional) Width of a line. Value conforms to data.LINEWIDTH . att.linerend.base
@n (optional) Provides a number-like designation for an element. Value conforms to token . att.common
@next (optional) Used to point to the next event(s) in a user-defined collection. One or more values from data.URI , separated by spaces. att.common.anl
@niente (optional) Indicates that the hairpin starts from or ends in silence. Often rendered as a small circle attached to the closed end of the hairpin. See Gould, p. 108. Value conforms to data.BOOLEAN . att.hairpin.log
@opening (optional) Specifies the distance between the lines at the open end of a hairpin dynamic mark. Value conforms to data.MEASUREMENTABS . att.hairpin.vis
@place (optional) Captures the placement of the item with respect to the staff with which it is associated. Value conforms to data.STAFFREL . att.placement
@plist (optional) Contains a space separated list of references that identify active participants in a collection/relationship, such as notes under a phrase mark; that is, the entities pointed "from". One or more values from data.URI , separated by spaces. att.plist
@prev (optional) Points to the previous event(s) in a user-defined collection. One or more values from data.URI , separated by spaces. att.common.anl
@sameas (optional) Points to an element that is the same as the current element but is not a literal copy of the current element. One or more values from data.URI , separated by spaces. att.common.anl
@staff (optional) Signifies the staff on which a notated event occurs or to which a control event applies. Mandatory when applicable. One or more values of datatype positiveInteger, separated by spaces. att.staffident
@startho (optional) Records the horizontal adjustment of a feature's programmatically-determined start point. Value conforms to data.MEASUREMENTREL . att.visualoffset2.ho
@startid (optional) Holds a reference to the first element in a sequence of events to which the feature applies. Value conforms to data.URI . att.startid
@startto (optional) Records a timestamp adjustment of a feature's programmatically-determined start point. Value conforms to data.TSTAMPOFFSET . att.visualoffset2.to
@startvo (optional) Records a vertical adjustment of a feature's programmatically-determined start point. Value conforms to data.MEASUREMENTREL . att.visualoffset2.vo
@subtype (optional) Provide any sub-classification for the element, additional to that given by its type attribute. Value of datatype NMTOKEN. att.typed
@synch (optional) Points to elements that are synchronous with the current element. One or more values from data.URI , separated by spaces. att.common.anl
@to (optional) Records a timestamp adjustment of a feature's programmatically-determined location in terms of musical time; that is, beats. Value conforms to data.TSTAMPOFFSET . att.visualoffset.to
@tstamp (optional) Encodes the onset time in terms of musical time, i.e., beats[.fractional_beat_part]. Value conforms to data.BEAT . att.timestamp.musical
@tstamp.ges (optional) Captures performed onset time in several forms; that is, ppq (MIDI clicks and MusicXML 'divisions'), Humdrum **recip values, beats, seconds, or mensural duration values. Value conforms to data.DURATION.gestural . att.timestamp.performed
@tstamp.real (optional) Used to record the onset time in terms of ISO time. Value conforms to data.ISOTIME . att.timestamp.performed
@tstamp2 (optional) Encodes the ending point of an event in terms of musical time, i.e., a count of measures plus a beat location. Value conforms to data.MEASUREBEAT . att.timestamp2.musical
@type (optional) Characterizes the element in some sense, using any convenient classification scheme or typology. Value of datatype NMTOKEN. att.typed
@val (optional) MIDI number. Value conforms to data.MIDIVALUE . att.midivalue
@val2 (optional) MIDI number. Value conforms to data.MIDIVALUE . att.midivalue2
@vo (optional) Records the vertical adjustment of a feature's programmatically-determined location in terms of staff interline distance; that is, in units of 1/2 the distance between adjacent staff lines. Value conforms to data.MEASUREMENTREL . att.visualoffset.vo
@when (optional) Indicates the point of occurrence of this feature along a time line. Its value must be the ID of a when element elsewhere in the document. Value conforms to data.URI . att.alignment
@x (optional) Encodes an x coordinate for a feature in an output coordinate system. When it is necessary to record the placement of a feature in a facsimile image, use the facs attribute. Value of datatype decimal. att.xy
@x2 (optional) Encodes the optional 2nd x coordinate. Value of datatype decimal. att.xy2
@xml:base (optional) Provides a base URI reference with which applications can resolve relative URI references into absolute URI references. Value conforms to data.URI . att.commonPart
@xml:id (optional) Regularizes the naming of an element and thus facilitates building links between it and other resources. Each id attribute within a document must have a unique value. Value of datatype ID. att.id
@y (optional) Encodes an y coordinate for a feature in an output coordinate system. When it is necessary to record the placement of a feature in a facsimile image, use the facs attribute. Value of datatype decimal. att.xy
@y2 (optional) Encodes the optional 2nd y coordinate. Value of datatype decimal. att.xy2
Member of
Contained by
May contain
Empty
Declaration
<classes>
<memberOf key= " att.common" />
<memberOf key= " att.facsimile" />
<memberOf key= " att.hairpin.log" />
<memberOf key= " att.hairpin.vis" />
<memberOf key= " att.hairpin.ges" />
<memberOf key= " att.hairpin.anl" />
<memberOf key= " att.typed" />
<memberOf key= " model.controleventLike.cmn" />
</classes>
<content>
<rng:empty/>
</content>
Remarks

The hairpin element is used for graphical, i.e., crescendo and diminuendo, dynamic markings. For instantaneous or continuous textual dynamics, such as 'p', 'mf', or 'cres. poco a poco', the dynam element should be used. The starting point of the hairpin marking may be indicated by either a startid, tstamp, tstamp.ges, or tstamp.real attribute, while the ending point may be recorded by either a dur, dur.ges, endid, or tstamp2 attribute. It is a semantic error not to specify one starting and one ending type of attribute. MIDI values associated with the graphical dynamic sign may be recorded in the val and val2 attributes.

Constraints
Must have one of the attributes: startid, tstamp, tstamp.ges or tstamp.real.
Must have one of the attributes: dur, dur.ges, endid, or tstamp2.
<sch:rule context= "mei:hairpin">
<sch:assert test= "@startid or @tstamp or @tstamp.ges or @tstamp.real"> Must have one of the attributes: startid, tstamp, tstamp.ges or tstamp.real. </sch:assert>
<sch:assert test= "@dur or @dur.ges or @endid or @tstamp2"> Must have one of the attributes: dur, dur.ges, endid, or tstamp2. </sch:assert>
</sch:rule>

MEI Guidelines Version 3.0.0

MEI Elements